Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid found in the cavities of synovial joints. Several articular diseases are characterised by fluid accumulation in joints, so that arthrocentesis and morphological analysis are essential tools for differentiating a non-inflammatory arthropathy from an inflammatory arthropathy or an infectious disease. Cell count and differentiation are important diagnostic aspects in such patients. This first SEED article about synovial fluid summarises the typical characteristics and recommends procedures for specimen collection and handling.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.
By combining the WDF and WPC channels both the sensitivity and specificity for detecting reactive and malignant cells is optimised. The measurement technology of XN-Series analysers detects the white blood cell functionality and the novel ‘Extended Inflammation Parameters’ let you quantify activated lymphocytes and neutrophils, and the results can be applied once a malignancy has been excluded.